Daniel Giraud Elliot
Ao folhear o último catálogo da Bauman Rare Books January 2013 – 85 Great Books Catalogue encontrei um livro que me atraiu a atenção ou não fosse eu um grande entusiasta por pássaros e todo o tipo de aves.
January 2013 – 85 Great Books Catalogue
Claro que o livro surgiu um pouco “acidentalmente”, pois que outras obras me atrairam a atenção, mas voltei um pouco atrás e reli melhor o seu descritivo, o qual me deixou francamente interessado.
Daí a lançar-me na busca de mais elementos, nomeadamente imagens, foi um pequeno passo.
Mas voltemos ao livro em causa.
82. ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud. A Monograph of the Paradiseidae, or Birds of Paradise. London, 1873. Double elephant folio (18-1/2 by 23-1/2 inches), contemporary full green morocco gilt, custom cloth clamshell box.
First edition of Daniel Elliot’s great work on the Birds of Paradise, with 36 fine hand-colored lithographic plates by Joseph Wolf, colored by J. D. White. The finest copy we have seen.
Elliot’s Birds of Paradise contains some of the most celebrated bird illustrations ever produced. S.P. Dance has described Wolf and Smit’s plates “as almost as magnificent as the birds they portray, the fruits of Elliot’s considerable wealth, Wolf’s great artistry and both men’s profound knowledge and love of birds,” and Elliot’s own contribution as patron and author has been recognized as just as vital to the success of the work as that of his artists. Joseph Wolf (1820-99) “was undoubtedly the finest wildlife painter of the Victorian era. His art broke the mold of conventional animal portraiture and entered new territory by depicting nature as itself. He painted animals in their natural habitats, considered their points of view and revealed their moods and behaviors—allowing the viewer to glimpse the reality of the everyday lives of the hunters and hunted” (Jane Mainwaring). With dedication leaf and list of subscribers.
Anker 131. Dance, 132. Fine Bird Books, 95. Nissen IVB: 296. Wood, 331. Zimmer, 207. Bookplate of noted Boston collector and philanthropist Charles Goddard Weld. Plate 19 with tiny marginal tear mended on verso. A magnificent copy in fine condition with extraordinarily vibrant original hand coloring. A splendid volume.
Para começar o nome do seu autor Daniel Giraud Elliot despertou-me curiosidade, pois que sinceramente não fazia parte dos meus horizontes culturais, depois ao ver a excelente qualidade das ilustrações desta obra não resisti a fazer uma prequena viagem pela internet para tentar descobrir um pouco mais sobre este ilustre desconhecido para mim e conhecer melhor a sua obra.
É precisamente o resultado desta minha incursão bio-bibliográfica que quero partilhar convosco.
Daniel Giraud Elliot
Daniel Giraud Elliot (1) (March 7, 1835 - December 22, 1915) was an American zoologist.
Born in New York in 1835, as a young man Daniel Giraud Elliot traveled extensively in Europe and Asia to pursue his interests in ornithology and collect specimens. His collection was considered to be the finest private collection of the period and was acquired by the Museum of Natural History in 1869. An important figure in the nineteenth century scientific community, he was a talented artist who published lavish folios on birds and mammals. He was a founder of the American Museum of Natural History in New York and cofounder of the American Ornithologiss Union. In addition, he became Curator of Zoology at Chicago's Field Museum in 1894
Elliot was one of the founders of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, of the American Ornithologists Union and of the Société zoologique de France.
His interest in natural history enabled the production of an extensive series of color-plate books on birds and mammals, long after most publishers had already switched to smaller sizes and cheaper coloring techniques. Independently wealthy, he spared no expense in the creation of his large-folio works and employed the most acclaimed artists of the day to illustrate these richly-colored images.
Elliot wrote the text himself and commissioned artists such as Joseph Wolf and Joseph Smit, both of whom had worked for John Gould (2), to provide the illustrations.
The books included A Monograph of the Phasianidae (Family of the Pheasants) (1870–72), A Monograph of the Paradiseidae or Birds of Paradise (1873), A Monograph of the Felidae or Family of Cats (1878) and Review of the Primates (1912).
Among the rarest and finest works of the late nineteenth century are his Family of Pheasants, 1870-1872, Birds of Paradise, 1873 and Family of Cats, first issued 1878-1883. These extraordinary works achieved a new level of mastery of printing techniques, rendering of the species, and capturing the beauty of these exotic creatures.
In 1899, Elliot was invited to join the elite Harriman Alaska Expedition to study and document wildlife along the Alaskan coast.
The National Academy of Sciences awards the Daniel Giraud Elliot medal "for meritorious work in zoology or paleontology published in a three- to five-year period. Established through the Daniel Giraud Elliot Fund by gift of Miss Margaret Henderson Elliot."
Igualmente, pela elevada qualidade e rigor das suas ilustrações, fui investigar sobre Joseph Wolf.
Joseph Wolf (January 21, 1820 (3) – April 20, 1899) was a German artist who specialized in natural history illustration. He moved to the British Museum in 1848 and became the choice of illustrator for numerous explorers and collectors. He depicted animals accurately in lifelike postures and has been considered one of the great pioneers of wildlife art. Sir Edwin Landseer considered him ...without exception, the best all-round animal artist who ever lived.
Anas melleri (1864) by Joseph Wolf
The Zoological Society of London
E evidentemente Joseph Smit (1836-1929) que colaborou activamente nestas obras conjuntamente com Joseph Wolf.
Joseph Smit born in the Netherlands, Smit was invited to Britain by Philip Sclater in 1866 and did the lithography for Sclater's Exotic Ornithology. He also did the lithography for Joseph Wolf's Zoological Sketches (second series), as well as Daniel Elliott's monographs on the Phasianeidae and Paradiseida. Smit contributed regularly to the Transactions and the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Ibis, and The Field. Beginning in the 1870s, he worked on the massive Catalogue of Birds in the Museum, and later on the Lord Lilford's Coloured Figures of the Birds in the British Museum. "Considered . . . the best animal painter in England after the death of J. Wolf" – S. Peter Dance.
Paecilodryas aethiops by John Smit
Comecei a percorrer algumas Livrarias e Leiloeiras para tentar descobrir algumas das suas obras e, para poder comparar a sua qualidade e raridade, do resultado aqui fica um registo.
Na PBA Galleries, 133 Kearny Street, San Francisco, USA encontrei este livro que constituia o lote 51 do Leilão 187: Fine & Rare Books including Travel & Exploration realizado em 06/10/2004
ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud – A Monograph of the Phasianidae, or Family of the Pheasants. New, York: by the author, -1872.
2 volumes. Subscribers list. 79 hand-colored lithographed plates after Joseph Wolf by J. Smit and J.G. Keulemans (including one folding plate of feathers, the others all full portraits of pheasants in their habitats), printed by M. and N. Hanhart and P.W.M. Trap, colored by J.D. White, many plates heightened with gum arabic; 2 uncolored plates of heads and feet by and after Smit. Large folio, 23½x18, period full red morocco by Bickers & Son, London with wide gilt borders with floral corners, spines gilt in 7 compartments, all edges gilt.
“Of the great nineteenth-century ornithological monographs, none save Audubon’s is so sumptuous as D.G. Elliot’s Monograph of the Phasianidae, or Family of the Pheasants…a rare American contribution to this elegant class of books. It was entirely illustrated by the incomparable Joseph Wolf” (Mengel, p.44).
There are 79 large and magnificent hand-colored plates after Joseph Wolf (1820-1899) whom Sir Edwin Landseer called "without exception, the best all-round animal artist who ever lived" (quoted in The Natural History Museum of London’s 2001 exhibition catalogue). Elliot himself fully realized the importance of Wolf’s work to his own and dedicated these volumes to his friend, “whose unrivalled talent has graced these works with their chief attraction”. The coloring itself is wonderfully meticulous and in excellent condition. The breasts and throats of many birds are heightened with gum arabic, adding iridescence to the feathers. Many of the pheasants are depicted life-size.
The Pheasants is considered to be Elliot’s finest work. Elliot (1835-1915) was a leading figure in 19th century American natural history. He was one of the founders of the American Ornithologists Union, was curator of zoology at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and co-founded (with Albert Bickmore) the American Museum of Natural History in New York. The latter institution holds Elliot’s papers and Wolf’s original watercolors to the present work. Elliot attached great importance to the Phasianidae. Of all the families in the ornithological system, he regarded it as the one most vital to the human race, “containing within it the species that afford food for thousands of mankind, and also those which are the original source of all the domestic poultry met with throughout the civilized world.” Although less expensive methods of color reproduction were in use when this book was published, Elliot required hand-colored lithographs. Fortunately, his independent fortune allowed him to produce his work on the lavish scale he desired. Elliot’s earlier monographs had hand-colored lithographs by Bowen & Co. of Philadelphia. However, J.T. Bowen’s widow closed the firm in 1869 and Elliot was forced to look outside the United States. He moved to Europe and had the plates for the rest of his books produced in Belgium, although he continued to use a New York imprint. The Pheasants was originally issued in 6 parts between June 1870 and October 1872.
Recent documentary evidence suggests that the lithograph stones to this work were destroyed after only 150 copies were taken (see Sotheby’s London, 5 June 2001). This set is from a private American collection; it has been in the owner's family since 1936 when it was purchased at an estate sale, probably near Chicago, Illinois. Despite this work’s American origin, it is rare in the United States. Of the 119 copies in the subscriber's list, only 13 were intended for Americans.
Fine Bird Books, p.74; Nissen IVB 295; Zimmer p.206; also see Reese, 19th Century American Color Plate Books, p.63 and R.M. Mengel, “Beauty and the Beast: Natural History and Art” in The Living Bird 18, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 1979-1980.
Bindings worn at corners, scraped, rubbed joints, vol. 2 with binding and preliminaries detached and front cover just starting; first title-page creased, a couple of guards torn, very few text leaves with closed marginal tears; some marginal finger-soiling and very minor edge toning, first plate and last plate of vol. 2 with narrow wear to outer edge, 5 plates with light finger smudges in the backgrounds (smudge on Calophasis Ellioti partially erased with small loss to background color), and one with small background stain, feathers plate with 7cm. tear and small marginal loss. Overall, an excellent set; in a handsome, reparable binding and all plates in either fine or near fine condition, lush, with fresh surfaces, and free from the spotting that is common to this work.
Donald A. Heald
Na Donald A. Heald, 124 East 74th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA (ainda que o início da sua actividade date de 1972 em Inglaterra) tive mais sorte pois que apresenta para venda um excelente conjunto das suas obras no total de quatro.
ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud (1835-1915) – A Monograph of the Phasianidae or Family of the Pheasants. New York: published for the Author, -1872.
New York: published for the Author, -1872. 2 volumes, folio (23 1/2 x 18 inches). 2pp. subscriber's list. 79 fine hand-colored lithographic plates (including 1 folding plate of feathers) after Joseph Wolf by Joseph Smit (58) or John Gerrard Keulemans (21), printed by M. & N. Hanhart and P.W.M. Trap, coloured by J.D. White, 2 uncolored lithographic plates by and after Smit, on India paper mounted. (Expert neat repairs to titles, the lower margin of the folding plate of feathers, and the text leaf in vol. II describing the Lady Amherst's pheasant). Contemporary red morocco gilt by Bickers & Son, covers with elaborate gilt border composed from fillets, decorative rolls and stylized foliage tools at cornerpieces, spines in seven compartments with double raised bands, lettered in the second and fourth, the others with overall decoration of massed small tools, gilt turn-ins, marbled endpapers, g.e.
Anker 130; Fine Birds Books (1990), p. 95; T. Keulemans & J. Coldewey Feathers to brush... John Gerrard Keulemans 1982, p.61; Nissen IVB 295; Wood p. 331; Zimmer p. 206.
New York: D.Appleton & Co, [1861-]1863. Folio (21 7/16 x 13 5/8 inches). 1p. dedication to Philip Lutley Sclater, 1p. list of subscribers. 31 fine hand-coloured lithographic plates, heightened with gum arabic, after Elliot (24), Paul Louis Oudart (4), E. Maubert (1), A.Mesnel (1) and one unsigned, drawn on stone by C. P.Tholey and others, printed and coloured by Bowen & Co. of Philadelphia. (Occasional light spotting, small skillfully-repaired tear to blank margin of title). Contemporary green half morocco gilt by W.S. Hiltz, spine gilt in six compartments with raised bands, lettered in the second and fourth compartments, repeat decoration in the others, marbled endpapers, gilt edges (expert repairs to spine).
A fine copy of the first edition. A rare and spectacular ornithological work, the first book by Elliot with his own illustrations, and the scarcest of his major monographs.
'Elliot was not his own painter, except among the Pittas. Early in his career, in 1863, he had brought out his book on the Pittidae, or Ant-Thrushes with plates of a delightful... character, after his own drawings.' (Fine Bird Books). Elliot's chosen illustrator, Paul Louis Oudart, died after completing only 3 or 4 plates, and rather than risk a hurried instruction to another artist, Elliot 'felt compelled to turn draughtsman myself' (Preface) and executed all of the other drawings, bar one each by Maubert and Mesnel. The illustrations and indeed the birds themselves represent the pinnacle of Elliot's pictorial work. When a second edition of this work was issued, most of the plates were redrawn by John Gould's artist, William Hart, and the text was completely rewritten. The Pittidae described are native to Borneo, Nepal, Ceylon, the Philippines, New Guinea, and Cambodia amongst other places. Their plumage is rendered in vibrant shades of blues, greens and reds, and the birds (many of whom are shown feeding their young) are placed against beautifully drawn landscapes. Elliot was also careful to ensure that the flowers and foliage shown in detail with the birds were appropriate for the species shown.
BM (NH) I, p.522; Fine Bird Books (1990), p. 95; Nissen IVB 292; Sabin 22228 (noting that only 200 copies were printed); Wood p.332; Whittell pp.225-226; Zimmer p.208.
ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud (1835-1915) – The New and Heretofore Unfigured Species of the Birds of North America. New York: Published by the Author, [1866-]1869.
New York: Published by the Author, [1866-]1869. 2 volumes, large folio (23 3/16 x 18 1/8 inches). 1p. list of 71 subscribers. 72 hand-coloured lithographic plates (including 1 plate by and after Elliot and Joseph Wolf, printed by D. McClellan & Brothers of New York; 71 printed and coloured by Bowen & Co. of Philadelphia, after Elliot , Joseph Wolf  or Edwin Sheppard , drawn on stone by Ch. P. Tholey (11), M.P. (14), H.J.S. (3) or L.H. (1) and others), 21 wood-engraved vignette illustrations, on india paper mounted, by W.J.Linton after Edwin Sheppard. Contemporary red half morocco over marbled paper-covered boards, the spines in six compartments with raised bands, lettered in the second and third, the others with elaborate repeat decoration in gilt, marbled endpapers, gilt edges.
A spectacular work on American birds, and particularly on birds of the American West, with fine, life-size, hand-coloured lithographs of species not previously pictured by Wilson or Audubon.
Elliot describes his aims in the preface: "Since the time of Wilson and Audubon, no work has been published upon American Ornithology, containing life-size representations of the various species that have been discovered since the labors of those great men were finished. The valuable productions of Cassin, as well as the revised edition of the ninth volume of the Pacific Rail Road Report, the joint labor of Messrs. Baird, Cassin and Lawrence had indeed appeared ... but no attempt had been made to continue the works of the first great American naturalists in a similar manner ... It was, therefore, with the desire to contribute ... towards the elucidation of the comparatively little known species of the Birds of North America, their habits and economy, as well as to render their forms familiar so far as life-size representation of them might serve to do, that I undertook the present publication."
Over half of the plates in the work are devoted to birds of the American west, including California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and the Rocky Mountains, with many of the remaining depicting birds of the Alaskan and Arctic regions. The specimens pictured by Elliot were derived from a number of sources, but included birds brought back from government-sponsored overland expeditions to the West, as well as from private sources such as John Xantus de Vesey.
The plates for Elliot's work (with the exception of plate 17 in volume II) were executed by Bowen of Philadelphia, the same lithographer as in Cassin's continuation of Audubon. The project, however, would prove the last for the noted firm, as it closed down shortly after the present work was completed. The plates are taken from originals by Elliot and one of the greatest ornithological artists working in the second half of the nineteenth century: Joseph Wolf. In particular, Wolf's image of the Iceland Falcon (the second plate in volume II) must rank as one of the great bird portraits of all time, and is a worthy successor to the images in Audubon's own masterpiece.
Anker 129; Bennett, p.39; Fine Bird Books (1990) p.95; Nissen IVB 294; Reese Stamped with a National Character 44; Sabin 22227; Wood p.331; Zimmer p. 205.
ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud (1835 -1915) – A Monograph of the Bucerotidae, or Family of the Hornbills. [New York]: printed by Taylor & Francis of London, published for the subscribers by the author, 1877-1882.
[New York]: printed by Taylor & Francis of London, published for the subscribers by the author, 1877-1882. 1 volume bound from the ten original parts, folio (14 3/4 x 11 1/8 inches). 60 lithographic plates printed by M. & N.Hanhart (comprising: 57 plates by and after John Gerrard Keulemans, all hand-coloured by Mr. Smith, 3 uncoloured plates by and after Joseph Smit), occasional uncoloured illustrations. Near-contemporary green half morocco, spine in six compartments with raised bands, lettered in gilt in the second and third, date in gilt at foot of spine, original brown paper wrappers to all ten parts bound at the back, top edge gilt.
A fine copy of the first edition of this 'comprehensive treatment of the entire family of hornbills' (Zimmer) from one of the best known American ornithologists of the second half of the nineteenth century, with illustrations by Keulemans, the most popular ornithological artist of the period.
This is the important first monograph on this widely scattered family of extraordinary birds. "The Bucerotidae are pretty equally divided at the present day between the Ethiopian and Oriental Regions, the first having twenty-seven and the latter twenty-nine species, while but a few... are scattered about the islands of the Malay archipelago" (introduction). Hornbills are extraordinary not only for their physical appearance but also for their behavior - the most noteworthy shared trait amongst the species is the male's habit of "enclosing the female in the hollow of some tree, firmly fastening her in by a wall of mud, and keeping her close prisoner until the eggs are hatched" (introduction). The male will feed the female through a slit in the wall whilst she incubates the eggs. She will only break through the wall of mud and leave the nest once the young have hatched, at which point the wall is rebuilt and remains in place until the young are ready to fly. The bizarre beauty of this species is here ably captured by Keulemans highly accurate and beautifully observed plates. Keulemans was born in Rotterdam, Holland, in 1842, but worked and lived chiefly in England, working on most of the important ornithological monographs and periodicals published between about 1870 and his death in London in 1912. He was 'undoubtedly the most popular bird artist of his day as well as being the most prolific. He was gifted with a superb sense of draughtsmanship and revealed his considerable versatility in capturing the significant subtleties of color, form, and expression in the birds... represented in his various illustrations' (Feathers to brush p. 47)
BM(NH) I,p.522; Fine Bird Books (1990) p.95; T. Keulemans & J. Coldewey, Feathers to brush... John Gerrard Keulemans, 1982, p.61; Nissen IVB 297; Wood p.331; Zimmer p.207
Mas Daniel Giraud Elliot não estudou só as aves também nos deixou alguns livros sobre mamíferos.
Na Bloomsbury House, 24 Maddox Street, Mayfair, London, W1S 1PP, England encontrei referência a dois exemplars de The Monograph of the Felidae of family of the cats, um vendido no Leilão NY019 a 1 de Janeiro de 1970 e um outro que curiosamente não foi vendido:
34. ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud (1835-1915) - Joseph WOLF (1820-1899, artist). The Monograph of the Felidae of family of the cats. London: [1878-]1883. Folio (600 x 475 mm). 43 hand-colored lithographic plates drawn on stone by Joseph Smith from drawings by Joseph Wolf, printed by M. & N. Hanhart. Plates and text mounted on guards. Modern blue cloth with reddish brown morocco and spine. Conditon: repaired tear in lower margin of one text leaf, a few short, closed tears to a few others.
FIRST EDITION. A FINE, CLEAN COMPLETE COPY OF ELLIOT'S EXCELLENT MONOGRAPH, THE DEFINITIVE WORK ON THE FAMILY OF CATS.
In this magnificent work Elliot described and had pictured all the species of cats then known. The work was prompted by a perceived need to resolve the confusion that had built up around the naming of the various species of Felidae, particularly amongst the smaller cats. Wolf worked from specimens provided by Elliot, who visited all the great museums and zoological societies on both sides of the Atlantic.
Joseph Wolf's work for Elliot marks the high-point of his illustrative work and his images of the cats are considered by many to be his masterpieces. After serving an apprenticeship with a Koblentz firm of lithographers, and spending some time working in Leiden and Darmstadt, Wolf moved to London in 1848.
The quality of his images was immediately apparent and he was rarely without work, producing natural history pictures of the highest quality for John Gould, Henry Dresser, George Gray and the Zoological Society of London amongst many others. BM(NH) II,p.522; cf. Nissen ZBI 1279; cf. Wood p.332.
BHL – Biodiversity Heritage Library
Na BHL – Biodiversity Heritage Library encontrei uma das suas últimas obras:
ELLIOT, Daniel Giraud – A Review of the Primates. 3 Vol. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1912. (4)
Depois passa a descrever a sub-ordem dos Anthropoidea começando com as famílias Callitrichidae—Tamarins—Marmosets—Titi Monkeys e Cebidse (onde inclui as sub-famílias Alouattinac—Howlers e Pithecinae—Sakis—Uakari—Squirrel Monkeys)
O volume II continua com a sub-ordem Anthropoidea incluindo da família Cebidse as subfamilias Aotinae—Douroucouli e a Cebinae—Spider Monkeys—Woolly Monkeys—Capuchins. Segue-se a familia Lasiopygidae onde se descreve a sub-família: Lasiopyginae—Eaboons—Geladas—Black Apes—Celebes Macaques— Tailless Macaques—Mangabeys—Hamlyn's Monkey—Guenons
O volume III ainda dentro da sub-ordem Anthropoidae descreve a família Lasiopygidae com as suas duas sub-famílias: Lasiopyginae— Guenons— Talapoins— Red Guenons e Colobinse— Langurs— Retrousse-nosed Monkeys— Proboscis Monkey— Guerezas e termina com as famílias Hylobatidse— Gibbons e Pongiidae— Ourang-utan— Gorillas— Mayema Ape— Chimpanzees.
Com este artigo, que aborda temas essencialmente de ordem científica, também com algum interesse para os estudiosos da Zoologia, e pese embora algumas das ideias e dados apresentados por Daniel Giraud Elliot terem sofrido alterações, sobretudo na classificação sistemártica com correcções de algumas identificações erróneas de espécies, estas obras tiveram algum peso na comunidade científica da época.
Sob o ponto de vista bibliófilo julgo terem uma grande importância pela qualidade gráfica da sua impressão, mas sobretudo pela excepcional beleza e pormenorizado desenho das ilustrações.
Mas como “não há bela sem senão” iremos encontrar um problema bem diferente: é que no mercado bibliófilo – sobretudo nos leilões onde poderemos encontrar algum destes exemplares – o seu preço atinge valores por demais elevados o que os torna praticamente inacessíveis para a maioria dos potenciais interessados.
E, já agora, convirá não esquecer que o primeiro best-seller foi um livro científico – On The Origen of Species de Charles Robert Darwin!
(a 1ª edição esgotou no dia – 24 de Novembro de 1859 – em que foi colocada à venda … poucos escritores se podem vangloriar desse facto)
DARWIN, Charles Robert – On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray, 1859. Rare first edition, in original cloth, of one of the great landmarks in the history of science, one of only 1250 copies.
Outro aspecto que envolve alguma divergência de ideias na comunidade bibliófila é saber se um livro antigo, e como tal coleccionável, é para ser lido ou simplesmente catalogado e “religiosamente” guardado nas nossas bibliotecas.
(sobre este aspecto já li várias opiniões defendendo cada umas das duas posições)
Pessoalmente sou de opinião que se não gostar do conteúdo de um determinado livro pouco significado terá colocá-lo na minha biblioteca (seja de que século ou tipo de edição for!)
Obviamente que se um livro for por demais valioso ou com uma encadernação por demais delicada tentarei lê-lo numa edição corrente/moderna ou mesmo numa versão pdf/ebook (hoje tão divulgadas e acessíveis) mas será sempre um livro que merecerá e deverá ser lido.
Mais que não seja, folhea-lo-ei e lerei algumas das suas passagens. Só assim se sente o “verdadeiro perfume” destas nossas pequenas preciosidades!
(1) As notas biográficas foram retiradas da Wikipedia (versão em inglês) e completadas com outros apontamentos dispersos que consegui apurar por me parecer a forma mais coerente com os textos apresentados.
(2) Leia-se neste bolg sobre John Gould – Uma pequena história: como um pássaro me fez descobrir um livro. (http://tertuliabibliofila.blogspot.pt/2011/08/uma-pequena-historia-como-um-passaro-me.html)
(3) Leia-se: Palmer, A.H. – The life of Joseph Wolf. London and New York: Longmans, Green and Co, 1895. (http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002096166#page/n11/mode/2up)
(4) Podem ser acedidos pelos links:
Volume II: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40609754
Volume III: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40631729
(5) Claro que esta sistematização já sofreu revisões mas mantenho a descrição de acordo como foi apresentada pelo autor.